Category Archives for Global World News

Immigration Separation Policy Traumatizes Children

Reposted from QUARTZ

Department of Homeland Separation

Science shows just how traumatizing
it is
to separate kids from parents
at the US-Mexico border

This spring, the White House implemented a new “zero-tolerance policy” intended to crack down undocumented immigrants attempting to enter the US along the country’s southwest border. Among the central targets of this policy are the children of immigrants, some as young as 18 months old.

US attorney general Jeff Sessions announced on May 7 that the Department of Homeland Security would be referring 100% of immigrants illegally crossing the border for criminal prosecution in federal court—and that any minors traveling with them would be taken into government custody. In a speech explaining the new guidelines, Sessions said, “If you’re smuggling a child, then we’re going to prosecute you, and that child will be separated from you, probably, as required by law.”

This is a major shift in policy, as immigrants previously charged with illegal entry—a misdemeanor on the first offense—had been allowed to stay in family shelters with their kids while awaiting asylum cases or deportation proceedings. Now, migrants attempting to enter the US illegally are being jailed and separated from their children.

It’s clear the separations are already having a devastating effect. One Houston Chronicle story tells the story of a man who was deported—alone—after attempting to cross the border, while his 18-month-old was placed in a federal shelter. Government agents couldn’t tell him where his child was. A story in the Arizona Daily Star reports on a Guatemalan woman begging the judge who sentenced her to serve time for illegal entry to tell her when she would be able to see her 8-year-old and 11-year-old sons again—and getting no clear response.

Heartbreaking as these stories are, the long-term consequences of the separation may be even worse. A strong body of science proves that separating children from their parents causes enduring harm to children’s emotional and mental health, and to the relationship between the child and their parent.

In US history there has been a precedence for this cruel and unwarranted Immigration policy.
JUST THINK ABOUT IT….
.I’m sure you’ll see the parallel.
The United Nations has recently condemned the United States for this criminal practice.

Attachment theory and parent-child separation

Attachment theory, developed in 1958 by John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth, explains that young children’s sense of security is rooted in their relationships with caregivers, which in turn shapes children’s social, cognitive, and emotional regulation skills. That means separating a child from the caregiver puts the child’s long-term development at risk.

One 2011 study, published in the journal Attachment and Human Development, examined the effects of mother-child separation upon children under two years of age who had been apart from their mothers for a week or more. Most of the children came from low-income families. The researchers found that children who had been separated from their mothers at a young age showed more aggression and negativity at ages three and five, noting that involuntary separations were much more likely to have a negative effect. Meanwhile, a 2009 study of Chinese children who had been separated from their parents found that children whose parents had migrated in search of employment opportunities early in life were at greater risk of anxiety and depression later on.

Because the separations at the US-Mexico border are both forced and unexpected, they’re likely to be particularly damaging for kids. “The physical separation between a parent and child, particularly when unexpected as in the case of deportation, disrupts this essential secure base, risking internalizing symptoms (depression, anxiety), externalizing behaviors (withdrawal, aggression), and social and cognitive difficulties,” as one 2014 study (pdf) of detention and deportation of US migrants, published in the American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, explains.

The effects of being separated from a parent can be difficult even when children are well cared for—say, staying with a grandparent or another trusted relative. But under the new US policy, parents are prosecuted and their kids are taken into government custody. Children are treated much better than their parentsthey have to be transferred to the Office of Refugee Resettlement within 72 hours of being taken into custody by Homeland Security, given access to free legal services, held in a safe, sanitary, and “least-restrictive” possible environment, and given time to play outside. But the number of minors entering the US illegally is set to soon outpace the space available for them. So the Trump administration is reportedly considering holding undocumented immigrant children in military facilities.

And there’s reason to believe that the US government isn’t a trustworthy custodian. In 2018, the Office of Refugee Resettlement, which handles the placement of undocumented immigrant children into shelters or with sponsors, reported that it could not “determine with certainty the whereabouts of 1,475” unaccompanied children who had previously been resettled with sponsors. And a 2016 report found that the Department of Health and Human Services unwittingly released a dozen minors into the custody of human traffickers.

In an April 26, 2018 oversight hearing, senator Rob Portman, the Republican junior senator for Ohio, gave an overview of the systemic ways in which US immigration officials are failing to enact basic protections to the children of undocumented immigrants. “We need to do better,” Portman said. In the weeks since, it seems, the US has been doing worse.

This reporting is part of a series supported by a grant from the Bernard van Leer Foundation. The author’s views are not necessarily those of the Bernard van Leer Foundation.

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Gaza: Nakba day protests as Palestinians bury those killed

Even though Palestine is not an official state, the U.S. and Palestine have a long history of rocky diplomatic relations. With Palestinian Authority (PA) head Mahmoud Abbas set to appeal for the creation of a Palestinian state at the United Nations on September 19, 2011—and the U.S. set to veto the measure—that foreign policy history is again in the spotlight.

The story of U.S.-Palestinian relations is lengthy, and it obviously includes much of the history of Israel.

This is the first of several articles on the U.S.-Palestinian-Israeli relationship.

From THE GUARDIAN
Summary

Demonstrations at the border between Gaza and Israel were calmer on Tuesday, following a day of violence on Monday which saw at least 60 people killed.

We’re going to close down the live blog for now, so here’s a look at what happened today:

History

Palestine is an Islamic region, or perhaps several regions, in and around the Jewish-state of Israel in the Middle East. Its four million people live largely in the West Bank along the Jordan River, and in the Gaza Strip near Israel’s border with Egypt.

Israel occupies both the West Bank and Gaza Strip. It created Jewish settlements in each place, and has waged several small wars for control of those areas.

The United States has traditionally backed Israel and its right to exist as a recognized state. At the same time, the U.S. has sought cooperation from Arab nations in the Middle East, both to achieve its energy needs and to secure a safe environment for Israel. Those dual American goals have put Palestinians in the midst of a diplomatic tug-of-war for nearly 65 years.

Zionism

Jewish and Palestinian conflict began at the turn of the 20th Century as many Jews worldwide began the “Zionist” movement.

Because of discrimination in the Ukraine and other parts of Europe, they sought territory of their own around the Biblical holy lands of the Levant between the coast of the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. They also wanted that territory to include Jerusalem. Palestinians also consider Jerusalem a holy center.

Only after Nazis staged mass executions of Jews during the Holocaust of World War II did the international community begin backing the Jewish quest for a recognized state in the Middle East.

Partitioning and Diaspora

The United Nations authored a plan to partition the region into Jewish and Palestinian areas, with the intention that each become states. In 1947 Palestinians and Arabs from Jordan, Egypt, Iraq, and Syria began hostilities against Jews.

That same year saw the beginning of a Palestinian diaspora. Some 700,000 Palestinians were displaced as Israeli boundaries became clear.

On May 14, 1948, Israel declared its independence. The United States and most members of the United Nations recognized the new Jewish state. Palestinians call the date “al-Naqba,” or the catastrophe.

Full-blown war erupted. Israel beat the coalition of Palestinians and Arabs, taking territory that the United Nations had designated for Palestine.

Israel, however, was always felt insecure as it did not occupy the West Bank, the Golan Heights, or the Gaza Strip. Those territories would serve as buffers against Jordan, Syria, and Egypt respectively. It fought—and won—wars in 1967 and 1973 to occupy those territories. In 1967 it also occupied the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt. Many Palestinians who had fled in the diaspora, or their descendants, found themselves again living under Israeli control. Although considered illegal under international law, Israel has also built Jewish settlements throughout the West Bank.

U.S. Backing

The United States backed Israel throughout those wars. The U.S. has also continuously sent military equipment and foreign aid to Israel.

American support of Israel, however, has made its relations with neighboring Arab countries and Palestinians problematic.

Palestinian displacement and the lack of an official Palestinian state became a central tenet of much anti-American Islamic and Arabic sentiment.

The United States has had to craft foreign policy that both helps keep Israel secure and allows American access to Arab oil and shipping ports.

 

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